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中考英语语法总复习【专题十二 被 动 语 态】  

2015-06-04 21:44:36|  分类: 中考英语知识点 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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专题十二  态的构成及用法

一、被动语态

被动语态的基本结构为:be+动词的过去分词

各种时态的主动、被动语态的结构如下表(以动词do为例):

时态

主动语态

被动语态

例句

主动语态

被动语态

一般现在时

do/does

am/is/are+done

We clean the classroom.

The classroom is cleaned by us

一般过去时

did

was/were+done

He made the kite

The kite was made by him

现在进行时

am/is/are+doing

am/is/are+being done

She is watering flowers

Flower are being watered by her

现在完成时

have/has+done

have/has+been done

Jim has finished the work

The work has been finished by Jim

一般将来时

will/shall/be going to+do

will/shall/be going to+be done

They will plant trees tomorrow

Trees will be planted by them tomorrow

过去进行时

was/were+doing

was/were+being done

She was writing a letter this time yesterday

A letter was being written by her this time yesterday

过去完成时

had+done

had+been done

Jim had finished the work

The work had been finished

过去将来时

would/should/be going to+do

would/should/be going to+be done

He said he would make a kite

He said a kite would be made by him

含有情态动词

can/may/must+do

can/may/must+be done

I can find him

He can be found by me

一.被动语态的用法:在被动语态中,主语是动作的承受者,主要用于下列几种情况:

1)不知道动作的执行者是谁。如:This watch is made in China

2)没有必要指出动作的执行者是谁。如:More trees must be planted every year.。

3)需要强调或突出动作的承受者时。如:Chinese is spoken by more and more people in the world

4)句子的主语是动作的承受者。如:Many houses were washed away by the food

二、主动语态和被动语态的转换

1.主动语态变为被动语态

1)要将主动句里的宾语变为被动句中的主语,若主动句中的宾语是人称代词,要将宾语变成主格。

2)把主动句中的主语变为被动句中的宾语,主格变成宾格,并用by引导。

3)谓语动词变成相应的被动形式。


主动语态:          动作执行者+谓语动词主动形式+动作承受者


动语态:          动作承受者+谓语动词被动形式+动作执行者

如:We asked him to sing an English song(变为被动语态) He was asked to sing an English song by us

2.带双宾语的谓语动词变为被动语态

谓语动词带双宾语时,既可以将间接宾语转化成主语,也可以将直接宾语转化为主语。若将间接宾语转化为主语,则保留直接宾语;若将直接宾语转化为主语则保留间接宾语,且在被保留的间接宾语前加上介词tofor。如:She gave me a book(变为被动语态) I was given a book by her(间接宾语me改为了主语)

A book was given to me by her(直接宾语a book 改为了主语)

3.动词短语变为被动语态

许多由动词和介词、副词构成的动词短语相当于及物动词,可以有宾语,也可以有被动语态。在变为被动语态时,不可丢掉构成动词短语的介词或副词。如:We should speak to old men politely(变为被动语态)

Old men should be spoken to politely(to不可省略)

4.带复合宾语的动词变为被动语态

宾语加上宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。变被动语态时,只把宾语变为被动句的主语,宾语补足语保留在原处,成为主语补足语。如:I heard Jane playing the piano in her room(变为被动语态) Jane was heard playing the piano  in her room

5.变被动语态后动词形式的选择

主动句中在感官动词seehearwatchfeelnotice等,及使役动词letmakehave等后跟省略to的不定式,变为被动句时,应加上不定式符号to。如:He makes the girl stay at home.(变为被动语态)→The girl is made to stay at home by him

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